Potential Explanations for the Black-White Achievement Gap in U.S. Public Education

Fatima Hamadouche

Résumé


The present article probes into the magnitude of the black-white academic achievement gap and investigates the different probable explanations that laid the foundations for the academic discrepancies between black students and their more affluent counterparts in U.S. public education. In fact, the potential explanations that planted the seeds of the black-white achievement gap are dissimilar and varied. There is a wide range of factors and a huge array of miscellaneous explanations, or rather theories that can be held accountable for the present African American underachievement in U.S. public schools. The achievement gap issue necessitates a profound and strong comprehension of the gap’s grounds. There are no unanimously conventional causes of the black-white achievement gap. There is no consensus of what really caused the Black-white achievement gap in U.S. public education. In fact, explanations vary broadly along ideological, racial, and even political lines. Of the numerous explanations that have been provided, some are the outcome of scrupulous analysis and constructive study. Others stem from ideological- or some might consider them biased- positions. Indisputably, these beliefs and views are profoundly held. The explanations usually provided to account for the current gap spring from socio-cultural, socioeconomic, pedagogical, and genetic roots. Racism, genetic factors, black oppositional culture, socioeconomic and sociocultural attributes, and educational factors are mere possible explanations. We argue in this article that school-based factors are deemed as the most potential explanations for the black-white achievement gap in U.S. public education. We believe that operational educational practices can surmount all other problems and that all children can learn when provided with the proper pedagogical sustenance.


Mots-clés


Potential Explanations ; Black ; White Achievement Gap ; U.S ; Public Education

Texte intégral :

PDF (English)

Références


“Equity Within Reach: Insights from the Front Line of America’s Achievement.” Teach for America Report. 2005. Web. 14 Aug. 2013.

American Anthropological Association. Statement on Race and Intelligence. Dec. 1994. Web. 13 Aug. 2014.

American Psychological Association. The View of the American Psychological Association. 2008.Web. 14 Aug. 2015.

Armor, David J. Maximizing Intelligence. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers, 2003. Print.

Bainbridge, W. L., Lasley, T. J. “Demographics, Diversity, and K-12 Accountability: The Challenge of Closing The Achievement Gap.” Education and Urban Society 34.4 (2002): 422-437. Print.

Bankston, C.L.I. and Caldas, S.J. “Majority African American Schools and Social Injustice: The Influence of Desegregation on Academic Achievement.” Social Forces 75.2 (1996): 535-555. Print.

Binet, Alfred. The Development of Intelligence in Children: The Binet-Simon Scale. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins Co., 1916. Print.

Blanchett, W.J. “Disproportionate Representation of African American Students.” Special Education: Acknowledging The Role of White Privilege and Racism. Educational Researcher 35. 6 (2006): 24-28. Print.

Bonilla-Silva, E. White Supremacy and Racism in the Post-Civil Rights Era. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner. 2001. Print.

Bourdieu, P., and J.C.C. Passeron. Reproduction in Education, Society, and Culture. 2nd ed. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. 1990. Print.

Brooks-Gunn, J., and Markman, L.B. “The Contribution of Parenting To Ethnic and Racial Gaps In School Readiness.” The Future of Children 15. 1 (2005): 139-168. Print.

Carbonaro, W.J. “A Little Help From My Friends’ Parents: Intergenerational Closure and Educational Outcomes.” Sociology of Education 71. 4 (1998): 295-313. Print.

Carter, P.L. Keeping It Real: School Success Beyond Black and White. New York: Oxford University Press: 2005. Print.

Christie, C. A., Jolivette, K. and Nelson, C. M. “School Characteristics Related To High School Dropout Rates.” Remedial and Special Education 28 (2007): 325-339. Print.

Chubb, J.E., and T. Loveless. Eds. Bridging the Achievement Gap. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2002. Print.

Coleman, Geraldine. Issues in Education. Westport, Connecticut: Bergin and Garvey, 2001. Print.

Coleman, J.S., E.Q. Campbell, C.J. Hobson, J. McPartland, A.M. Mood, F.D. Weinfeld, et al. Equality of Educational Opportunity. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1966. Print.

Constable, R., and D.B. Lee. Social work with families: Content and process. Chicago: Lyceum Books, Inc. 2004. Print.

Davidson, Jill. “A Review of Rothstein's Class and Schools: Using Social, Economic, and Educational Reform to Close the black–white Achievement Gap.” Horace Book Review. 21, no. 2 (Winter 2005). 362. Web. 26 Aug. 2015.

Denslow, Katie. The Ability of Teachers to Close the Minority Achievement Gap through Multicultural Teacher Training. Carleton College: May 2000. Print.

Diamond, J.B. Are We Barking Up The Wrong Tree? Rethinking Oppositional Culture Explanations For The Black/White Achievement Gap. Paper Presented at the Achievement Gap Initiative. Harvard University. 2006. Print.

Diamond, J.B., and Spillane, J.P. “High-stakes Accountability In Urban Elementary Schools: Challenging or Reproducing Inequality?” Teachers College Record 106. 6 (2004): 1145-1176. Print.

Ensminger, M. E., Lamkin, R. P., and Jacobson, N. “School Leaving: A Longitudinal Perspective Including Neighborhood Effects.” Child Development 67(1996): 2400-2416. Print.

Epstein, J. L. School, Family, and Community Partnerships: Preparing Educators and Improving Schools. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. 2001. Print.

Epstein, J.L., and Dauber, S.L. “School Programs and Teacher Practices of Parent Involvement In Inner-City Elementary And Middle Schools.” Elementary School Journal 91. 3 (1991): 289-305. Print.

Fierros, E. G. “One Size Does Not Fit All: A Response To Institutionalizing Inequality.” Disabilities studies Quarterly 26.2 (2006):1-9. Print.

Fordham, Signithia and John Ogbu, “Black Students’ School Success: Coping with Burden of Acting White.” Urban Review 18. 3 (1986): 176-206. Print.

Fram, M. S., Miller-Cribbs, J. E., and Van Horn, L. Poverty, Race and The Contexts of Achievement: Examining Educational Experiences of Children in the U.S. South. National Association of Social Workers. 52.4 2007: 309-319. Print.

Furstenberg Jr., F.F., T.D. Cook, J. Eccles, Elder Jr., G.H., and A. Sameroff. Managing to Make It: Urban families and adolescent success. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. 1999. Print.

Gregory, A., and Mosely, P.M. “The Discipline Gap: Teachers’ Views on The Overrepresentation of African American Students In The Discipline System.” Equity and Excellence in Education 37.1 (2004): 18-30. Print.

Grogan-Kaylor, A., and Wooley, M. E. “The Social Ecology of Race and Ethnicity School Achievement Gaps: Economic, Neighborhood, School, and Family Factors.” Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment 20.7 (2010): 875-896. Print.

Grossman, K., Beaupre, B., and Rossi, R. “Poorest Kids Often Wind up with the Weakest Teachers.” Chicago Sun-Times. 7 Sept. 2001. Web. 15 Oct. 2014.

Hallinan, M. T. “Tracking: From Theory To Practice.” Sociology of Education 67.2 (1994): 79-84. Print.

Hart, Betty and Todd R. Risley. Meaningful Differences in the Everyday Experience of Young American Children. Baltimore, Md.: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Company, 1995. Print.

Haycock, K. National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). 2001. Web. 4 Oct. 2012.

Herrnstein, Richard J. and Charles Murray. The Bell Curve. Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life. New York, N.Y.: Free Press, 1994. Print.

Horton, A. “The Academic Achievement Gap Between Blacks And Whites: The Latest Version Of Blaming The Victim?” Journal Of Human Behavior In The Social Environment 10.2 (2004): 57-70. Print.

Katz, Irwin . “Alternatives to a Personality-Deficit Interpretation of Negro UnderAchievement.” Psychology and Race. Ed. Peter Watson. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company, 1997. 385. Print.

Kaushal, N. and Nepomnyaschy, L. Wealth, Race/Ethnicity, and Children’s Educational Outcomes. Children And Youth Services Review 31 (2009): 963-971. Print.

Kinchloe, J.L. Steinberg, S.R., Chennault, R.E., and Rodriguez, N.M. Eds. White Reign: Deploying Whiteness in America. New York: St. Martin’s Press. 1998. Print.

Laureau, A. Home advantage. New York: Falmer Press. 1989. Print.

Leach M. T., and Williams, S. A. (2007). “The Impact of The Academic Achievement Gap on The African American Family: A Social Inequality Perspective.” Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment 15 (2007): 39-59. Print.

Lee, J. “Racial and Ethnic Achievement Gap Trends: Reversing the Progress Toward Equality?” Educational Researcher 31.1 (January 2002): 3-12. Print.

Martin, D., Martin, M., Gibson, S. S. and Wilkes, J. “Increasing Prosocial Behavior and Academic Achievement Among Adolescent African American Males.” Adolescence 42.168 (2007): 689-698. Print.

Mattison, E. and Aber, M.S. “Closing The Achievement Gap: The Association of Racial Climate With Achievement and Behavioral Outcomes.” American Journal of Community Psychologists 40 (2007): 1-12. Print.

McNeal, R.B., Jr. “Parental Involvement as Social Capital: Differential Effectiveness on Science Achievement, Truancy, and Dropping Out.” Social Forces 78.1 (1999):117-144. Print.

McWhorter, John. Losing the Race: Self Sabotage in Black America. New York: Harper Perennial, 2001. Print.

National Assessment of Educational Progress. U.S. Department of Education. National Center for Education Statistics. The Condition of Education 2010. Web. 12 Nov. 2015.

National Education Association. Truth in Labeling: Disproportionality in Special Education. Washington, DC: Library of Congress. 2007. Print.

Nettles, M. T., Millett, C. M., and Ready, D. D. “Attacking the African American-white Achievement Gap on College Admissions Tests.” Ed. D. Ravitch. Brookings Papers on Education Policy. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution. 2003. 215-252. Print.

Obama, Barack. “The Audacity of Hope.” 2004 Democratic National Convention: Boston, Mass., 27 July 2004. Web. 14 Aug. 2012.

Ogbu, John U. Black American Students In An Affluent Suburb: A Study of Academic Disengagement. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. 2003. Print.

---. “Racial Stratification and Education in the United States: Why Inequality Persists,” Teachers College Record 96.2 (1994): 264-298. Print.

Oliver, M.L., and Shapiro, T.M. Black Wealth/White Wealth: A New Perspective on Racial Inequality. New York: Routledge. 1995. Print.

Olson, L. “The Great Divide.” Education Week 22.17, 2003: 9-16. Print.

Orfield, G., and Eaton, S.E. “The Growth of Segregation.” Eds. G. Orfield and S. Eaton. Dimantling Desegregation. The Quiet Reversal of Brown v. Board of Education. New York: The New Press. 1996. 424. Print.

Osborne, Jason W. “Testing Stereotype Threat: Does Anxiety Explain Race and Sex Differences in Achievement?” Contemporary Educational Psychology 20 (April 2001): 291-310. Print.

Paige, Rod, and Elaine Witty. The Black-White Achievement Gap: Why Closing it is the Greatest Civil Rights Issue of Our Time. New York: American Management Association. 2010. Print.

Roscigno, Vincent J. “Family/School Inequality and African-American/Hispanic Achievement.” Social Problems 47.2 (2000): 266-290. Print.

---. “Race and the Reproduction of Educational Disadvantage.” Social Forces (March 1998): n.pag. Print.

Rosenthal, Robert and Lenore Jacobson. “Self-fulfilling Prophecies in the Classroom: Teachers’ Expectations as Unintended Determinants of Pupils Intellectual Competence.” Eds. M. Deutsch, I. Katz, and A. R. Jensen. Social Class, Race, and Psychological Development. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. 1968. 219-253. Print.

-- Pygmalion In The Classroom: Teacher Expectation and Pupils’ Intellectual Development. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1968. Print.

Rothstein, Richard. Class and Schools: Using Social, Economic, and Educational Reform to Close the Black-White Achievement Gap. San Diego, California: Economic Policy Books, 2004. Print.

Russlynn, Ali. Presentation, Commission on No Child Left Behind. US Department of Education. Washington, D.C., 11 April 2006. Web. 19 Aug. 2015.

Schiller, Ben. "Learning Their Letters: Critical Literacy, Epistolary Culture, and Slavery in the Antebellum South." Southern Quarterly 45.3 (Spring 2008): 11-29. America: History and Life, Ebscohost. Web. 28 Oct. 2014.

Shearin, S. A. “Parent-Adolescent Interaction: Influence on the Academic Achievement of African American Adolescent Males.” Journal of Health and Social Policy 16 (2002): 125-137. Print.

Singham, Mano. “The Canary in the Mine.” Phi Delta Kappan 80. 1 Sept. 1998: 9-15. Print.

Stearns, E., and Glennie, E. J. “When and Why Dropouts Leave High School.” Journal of Youth and Society 38 (2006): 29-57. Print.

Sunderman, G.L., and Kim, J. Teacher Quality: Equalizing Educational Opportunities and Outcomes. The Harvard University Civil Rights Project. Cambridge, MA: 2005. Print.

Teach for America. About Us. 2008. Web. 14 Aug. 2014.

The Education Trust. What is the Education Trust? 2008. Web. 14 Aug. 2013.

Thernstrom, Stephan and Abigail Thernstrom. No Excuses: Closing the Racial Gap in Learning. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2003. Print.

Tyson, K., Darity, W., and Castellino, D.R. “It’s Not “A Black Thing”: Understanding The Burden of Acting White and Other Dilemmas of High Achievement.” American Sociological Review 70.4 (2005): 582-605. Print.

U.S. Department of Commerce, Census Bureau. Families Below Poverty Level by Selected Characteristics: 2009 Detailed Tables. Table 715. Washington, D.C., 2008. Web. 27 Nov. 2015.

Uhlenberg, J., and Brown, K.M. “Racial Gap In Teachers’ Perceptions of The Achievement Gap.” Education and Urban Society 34.4 (2002): 493-530. Print.

Verdugo, R. R. “The Heavens May Fall: School Dropouts, The Achievement Gap, and Statistical Bias.” Education and Urban Society 43.2 (2011): 184-204. Print.


Renvois

  • Il n'y a présentement aucun renvoi.




Direction des Publications et de l'animation scientifique

Université des Frères Mentouri Constantine 1. Route Ain El-Bey. 25000. Algérie.